The BeagleBone Black (BBB) is a $45 credit-card-sized computer that runs embedded Linux. I recently purchased a BBB along with an $8 4-phase stepper motor and driver to start playing around with slightly "closer-to-the-metal" motion control.

A shot of the BeagleBone Black, stepper motor, and driver.
BeagleBone Black wired up with the stepper motor and driver.

My first objective with the BBB was to simply get the stepper to move, and for this I started using the included Cloud9 IDE and BoneScript library. After a while messing around and learning a little JavaScript, along with some help from my programmer brother Tom, the stepper was moving in one direction using wave drive logic. However, the code felt awkward. I decided I'd rather use Python, since I'm a lot more comfortable with it, so I went out in search of Python packages or modules for working with the BeagleBone's general purpose I/O (GPIO) pins. I found two: Alexander Hiam's PyBBIO and Adafruit's Adafruit_BBIO. Adafruit_BBIO seemed to be more frequently maintained and better documented, so I installed it on the BeagleBone per their instructions, which was pretty quick and painless.

Next, I wrote a small, simple python module, BBpystepper, with a Stepper class for creating and working with a stepper control object. Currently the control uses full-step drive logic, with wave drive available by changing Stepper.drivemode. I may add half-stepping in the future, but for now full-stepping gets the job done.


After installing Adafruit_BBIO and BBpystepper on the BeagleBone, the module can be imported into a Python script or run from a Python interpreter. For example:

>>> from bbpystepper import Stepper
>>> mystepper = Stepper()
>>> mystepper.rotate(180, 10) # Rotates motor 180 degrees at 10 RPM
>>> mystepper.rotate(-180, 5) # Rotates motor back 180 degrees at 5 RPM
>>> mystepper.angle


  • By default the GPIO pins used are P8_13, P8_14, P8_15, and P8_16. These can be changed by modifying the Stepper.pins list.
  • By default the Stepper.steps_per_rev parameter is set to 2048 to match my motor (it has a built-in gearbox).
  • The code doesn't keep track of where it ends in the sequence of pins. It simply sets all pins low after a move. This means there could be some additional error in the Stepper.angle variable if the amount of steps moved is not divisible by 4.

Final Thoughts

As mentioned previously, half-stepping would be a nice future add-on, along with a more accurate way of keeping track of the motor shaft angle. Another logical next step would be to use one of the BBB's Programmable Real-Time Units (PRUs) to control the timing more precisely, therefore improving speed accuracy and allowing synchronization with other processes, e.g. data acquisition. However, for now this simple method gets the job done.

  • zanarama

    Hi, would you mind posting a schematic or more clear photo of the board connections?

    • Pete Bachant

      Sorry, but I don't have a schematic. It's very simple though. The stepper driver board has a +/- DC supply, then 4 pins for energizing the coils. Connect the pins according to the code, following the BeagleBone diagrams, and you should be all set.

  • Mythobeast

    Hi, Pete. I'm trying to replicate what you're doing, but the motor isn't turning at all. The only difference I can spot is that you seem to be passing the ground wire through a resistor, and I just plain can't figure out what the DC power is attached to. It connects to the bread board, but then the bread board stretches off the edge of the image. Is there a 5v power supply over there somewhere? What size is the resistor?

    • Pete Bachant

      There is a 5V power supply connected to the +/- bars on the breadboard, and I believe the resistor is a 1 kOhm. Sorry for the bad documentation!

      • Mythobeast

        Thanks, that helped. One thing I would add is that all of the code needs to be run as root in order to access the IO ports. I spent way too much time trying to make this work on a regular user account.

  • anonymousprp

    can i use an l293d motor driver with a stepper ?